Motivated by the recent trend in global sourcing and multi-channel strategies, we analyze a supply chain in which a manufacturer distributes a product through two distributors (channels) to a retailer whose demand is uncertain. The two distributors differ in terms of their commitment to offering return cred- its, and they compete by charging different wholesale prices to the retailer.
LI, Y., LAN, Y. et PAPIER, F. (2018). Competition and Coordination in a Three-Tier Supply Chain with Differentiated Channels. European Journal of Operational Research, 269(3), pp. 870-882.