At times there are discrepancies between corporate strategic objectives and management methods. Coherence is difficult to achieve in this matter, since relations between management methods and strategic implications are complex. Such coherence requires a collective problem-solving procedure, which must be continuously updated. Consequently it is based upon action-based collective learning. The strategic design of management and control methods must therefore be based upon a shared model of organizational action, which involves that: 1) the executive manager is first of all a "supervisor of collective inquiries", 2) the relevance of management methods is totally contingent and pragmatic : it depends on how effective they are to support collective learning, 3) competence management moves to the first rank of managerial issues.
LORINO, P. (2000). Cohérence : la quête du Graal. Les Echos, pp. 10-11.