Employees in established firms are submitted to a paradoxical command. They are urged to behave like entrepreneurs but, at the same time, organization design and management practices continue to be anchored in the traditional hierarchical, command and control, mindset. To help managers break out of the paradox, the author distinguishes four types of entrepreneurial behavior in established firms and invites managers to align organization design and management practices with the types of entrepreneurial behavior they want to promote.
BOUCHIKHI, H. (2007). Entreprendre dans l’entreprise établie: pour en finir avec l’injonction paradoxale. Dans: L’art de l’innovation. 1st ed. L’Harmattan, pp. 207-218.