French Urban hierarchy is characterized by a dominating capital and a dense network of middle-sized cities. Balance in the French urban system is the main goal of the urban and regional policy. This policy has resulted in such policies as those of second capitals, depressed areas and difficult urban districts, city charters and city networks, and thedecentralisation of competencies in favor of local communities.
SALLEZ, A. (1997). National Urban Policy in France. In: National Urban Policy in the European Union. European Institute for Comparative Urban Research (EURICUR), pp. 21-24.