The notion of spiritual exercise was developed within the various philosophical schools of antiquity, who developed techniques and methods so that everyone could achieve greater well-being, aiming at serenity. This practice of philosophy as a spiritual exercise irrigates all of Antiquity, from the Hellenistic period to the advent of Christianity, when philosophy became a discipline at the service of God. But in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance and in the classical age, philosophy as a way of life persists. For the first time, the founding texts of spiritual exercises are grouped together in a single volume through seven major themes, each of which is divided into three distinct periods: Antiquity; the modern age; finally the contemporary period, from Emerson until the beginning of the 21st century. Link to the article
PAVIE, X. (2022). Exercices spirituels philosophiques. Presses universitaires de France.