Developing successful social initiatives in new places is an important strategic issue for social entrepreneurs. Through an in-depth study of the geographical expansion strategies of 21 organizations with social objectives, this article proposes a typology of the growth models used by these organizations. It identifies four models characterized by different degrees of local control and embeddedness: growth through ¿dissemination,¿ growth through ¿flexible replication,¿ growth through ¿franchising,¿ and ¿centralized¿ growth. The strategic and organizational characteristics of the different models are presented¿ from project leaders to project financing and from legal and financial relationships to governance. The authors also identify the main strategic factors that can influence social entrepreneurs in their choice of models.
PACHE, A.C. and CHALENÇON, G. (2007). Changer d'échelle : Vers une typologie des stratégies d'expansion géographique des entreprises sociales. Revue Internationale de l'Economie Sociale - RECMA, (305).