Journal articles
Complexity and instability make performance steering within companies a non-deterministic system : each actor has a margin of free interpretation of what performance is. The coherence and the relevance of such individual interpretations are the basis for “X-efficiency” described by Harvey Leibenstein. “X-efficiency”, requires a social contract to make the rules of the game clear : someting like German co-management.
LORINO, P. (1996). Efficience-X et cogestion. Personnel, pp. 10-11.