Brand attitude data often are collected through free choice brand attitude questions. However, during a second interview, respondents to such questions are unlikely to repeat a positive answer they gave during the first interview, which makes individual answers unreliable even if the aggregate results are constant. A simple stochastic model explains this lack of reliability well. The authors validate the model using eight separate data sets and discuss its consequences for consumer targeting and market research.
RUNGIE, C., LAURENT, G., RILEY, F.D., MORRISON, D.G. and ROY, T. (2005). Measuring and modeling the (limited) reliability of free choice attitude questions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22(3), pp. 309-318.