The merger of AF and KLM influenced not only the northern European market but the entire industry business model. This trend of mergers and alliances was in response to changes in the European Union regulations that limited operating margins and increased competition. The merged entity was not only a larger company with optimized occupancy rates and access to new skies, but it also generated synergies only accessible with mergers, such as improved bargaining power or economies of scale in maintenance and commercial teams. The chapter deals with the intricacies of mega-mergers.
SOM, A. (2010). Case 13. Air France-KLM: Changing the Rules of the Game. In: Strategy: Process, Content, Context. An International Perspective (4th edition). 1st ed. South-Western Cengage Learning, pp. 823-836.