Many of the traditional tools used by competition authorities to assess relevant markets or the intensity of competition between firms are difficult to use or inadequate to assess competition issues between ecosystems in the digital world. Further economic thinking and an understanding of the business models of ecosystems are required to allow competition authorities to make informed and relevant decisions about competition on digital markets. This article reviews some of the challenges they face.
JENNY, F. (2021). Changing the way we think: Competition, Platforms and Ecosystems. Journal of Antitrust Enforcement, 9(1), pp. 1-18.