This paper provides a model to compute a norm which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate loyalty. The model incorporates the size of the store and the distance between the store and customers allocated in quadrants. An empirical application on the Scannel experimental zone shows how the model can be used.
DESMET, P. and VOLLE, P. (1996). The Modelling and Assessment of Store Loyalty Performance with a Simple-effect Gravitational Model. In: Marketing for an Expanding Europe - Proceedings of the 25th EMAC Conference. Budapest University of Economic Sciences, pp. 333-351.