American companies react differently when facing a lack of qualified manpower. Some develop internal training policies as a response to anticipated difficulties , others emphasize the external labor market and develop market oriented analyses : a third group of companies puts a strong emphasis on stimulation and motivation of their employees for self training.
BERNARD, A., BESSON, D. and HADDADJ, S. (1994). Proactions ou réactions aux pénuries de la qualification ? In: La GRH, Science de l'Action. Association Francophone de Gestion des Ressources Humaines (AGRH), pp. 604-610.