We investigated the possible explanations for differences between the market value and book value of a company. We propose the hypothesis that this difference can be attributed to the fact that intangible assets are not reflected in financial statements. Our results indicate a statistical link between the "capitalised goodwill" and the market-to-book ratio, but do not indicate any association with the "expensed intangible intensity" nor the "capitalised intangible intensity".
JENY, A. (2004). Le ratio market-to-book et la reconnaissance des immatériels- une étude du marché français. Comptabilité, Contrôle, Audit, pp. 99-124.