Through a study of R&D units, a domain where the project team structure by projects has supplanted functional structure, it was demonstrated that the level of organizational learning during new product development projects seems to be linked with the nature of the organizational structure chosen by the firm. The firms that chose an horizontal structure to manage their R&D activity seem to have a better ability to exploit organizational knowledge and to develop organizational learning.
BOURGEON, L. and TARONDEAU, J.C. (2000). L'apprentissage dans les organisations transversales : le cas de l'organisation des projets de R&D. In: Le management stratégique des compétences. 1st ed. Ellipses, pp. 287-326.