The goal of the study is to achieve a better understanding of the differences and the issues at stake in various existing models for development of professional football in Europe, in order to propose recommendations for improvement, particularly in terms of clubs' internal financial management and strategy. The research work involves detailed analysis of the financial results and management reports of professional clubs in the five largest European leagues (Germany, Spain, France, Italy and Great Britain), and an examination of whether tried-and-tested industrial management methods (mainly from the leisure and entertainment sectors) could be transposed to football.
BERNARD, J. and LARDINOIT, T. (2006). Is Professional Football and Economic Sector Like Any Other? A Comparison of French and European Clubs. In: Football and its Future. 1st ed. EGEA, pp. 259-285.