We explore the economic and environmental impact of market structure, i.e., competition or integration at vertical and horizontal levels. We consider a bilateral duopoly consisting of two manufacturers and two retailers in which each manufacturer offers a wholesale price contract to the respective retailer. The manufacturers decide wholesale prices and abatement efforts concerning pollution emissions related to manufacturing processes, whereas the retailers compete in quantities in the consumer market. Link to the article
SIM, J.E., EL OUARDIGHI, F. and KIM, B. (2019). Economic and Environmental Impact of Vertical and Horizontal Competition and Integration. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 66(2), pp. 133-153.