This paper illustrates how OI shapes organizations' strategies over long time frames. We examine the development of three large French retailers over the last 25 years and show that while these organizations had to cope with the same institutional environment limiting their expansion options, the specific strategies they enacted to cope with this environment reflect deeply rooted idiosyncratic identities.
BOUCHIKHI, H., KIMBERLY, J. and BENSEDRINE, J. (1999). Coping with a Hostile Institutional Environment: The Role of Organizational Identity.