In the battery sector, retailers can offer a joint maximization incentive to manufacturers to push up green activity program efforts and use the return rate as a marketing lever. Our results show that a joint maximization incentive always increases the manufacturers’ investments in green efforts and profits. Nevertheless, it benefits retailers only in a few cases. Also, a joint maximization incentive allows a decentralized closed-loop supply chain to achieve the same level of social and environmental performance as a centralized one. Overall, a joint maximization incentive always allows the closed-loop supply chain to achieve the triple bottom line when retailers are economically better-off through its implementation. In the presence of competing retailers, a joint maximization incentive turns out to be more effective as it increases the chances to achieve the triple bottom line. Link to the article
DE GIOVANNI, P. (2018). A Joint Maximization Incentive in Closed-Loop Supply Chains with Competing Retailers: The Case of Spent-Battery Recycling. European Journal of Operational Research, 1(268), pp. 128-147.